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Volume 5, Issue 3
This journal is the first English academic journal concerning entrepreneurship education in the Asia Pacific region. It is jointly founded by UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship Education at Zhejiang University and Springer.
Original Research Articles
Turning students into Industry 4.0 entrepreneurs: design and evaluation of a tailored study program
Dario Wahl & Jürgen Münch
Startups in the field of Industry 4.0 could be a huge driver of innovation for many industry sectors such as manufacturing. However, there is a lack of education programs to ensure a sufficient number of well-trained founders and thus a supply of such startups. Therefore, this study presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a university course tailored to the characteristics of Industry 4.0 entrepreneurship. Educational design-based research was applied with a focus on content and teaching concept. The study program was first implemented in 2021 at a German university of applied sciences with 25 students, of which 22 participated in the evaluation. The evaluation of the study program was conducted with a pretest–posttest-design targeting three areas: (1) knowledge about the application domain, (2) entrepreneurial intention and (3) psychological characteristics. The entrepreneurial intention was measured based on the theory of planned behavior. For measuring psychological characteristics, personality traits associated with entrepreneurship were used. Considering the study context and the limited external validity of the study, the following can be identified in particular: The results show that a university course can improve participants' knowledge of this particular area. In addition, perceived behavioral control of starting an Industry 4.0 startup was enhanced. However, the results showed no significant effects on psychological characteristics.
Entrepreneurship programs and their underlying pedagogy in secondary education in the Netherlands
Sultan Göksen-Olgun, Wim Groot & Ingrid Wakkee
Despite the increase in entrepreneurship initiatives and interventions, there is a poor understanding of entrepreneurship programs' principles and learning objectives in secondary education. This study provides insight into the current range of entrepreneurship programs and their underlying pedagogy in secondary education in the Netherlands. To structure the analysis, we used the 11 design principles of Baggen et al. (Entrep Educ Pedagog 5(3):347–374, 2022). Data were collected from three different sources: the Vecon Business Schools (VBS) application forms, interviews with VBS schools, and additional documents. The findings show that most schools are unfamiliar with the definitions of entrepreneurship education. Many of the principles of broad entrepreneurship education focus on personal growth and the development of an entrepreneurial mindset. These are not always recognizable in secondary schools' current offerings of entrepreneurship education. Furthermore, the pedagogies on which entrepreneurship programs are based are mostly traditional, despite literature showing that (socially) constructivist entrepreneurship programs lend themselves better to developing an entrepreneurial mindset.
The emergence of entrepreneurship education programs in Indonesian higher education institutions
Alex Maritz, Alice Li, Whidya Utami & Yoseva Sumaji
The purpose of this paper is to explore the status of entrepreneurship education programs (EEPs) in Indonesia, expanding similar papers on related Australian EEPs in 2019 and Malaysian EEPs in 2021. The aim is to review neoteric global best practice entrepreneurship education (EE), aligning context and specific inference of EEPs in Indonesian Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) within dynamic entrepreneurial ecosystems. We provide a descriptive and emergent inquiry approach consisting of a review of prominent scholarship within the context of EEPs in Indonesia, together with a first of its kind quantitative component depicting the distribution of entrepreneurship spirit, EEPs, accelerators and entrepreneurship support services within HEIs. The paper highlights the sparse and inconsistent distribution across EEPs in Indonesia, further characterized by only a few dominant HEIs specializing in EE. The findings provide critical insights for HEI leaders, researchers, practitioners, and administrators wishing to enhance entrepreneurship and start-up resources at Indonesian HEIs. Further research, however, is recommended especially with respect to the efficacy and impact of these EEPs.
Does university business incubator influence the individual entrepreneurial orientation of students? Evidence from entrepreneurship village, Brunei Darussalam
Alena Semivolos & Lukman Raimi
To better evaluate the influence of university business incubators on students’ entrepreneurial abilities and readiness to start their own businesses in the future, empirical studies on individual entrepreneurial orientation (IOE) are required in academia. This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of university business incubators on the individual entrepreneurial orientation (IOE) of students in Brunei Darussalam, Brunei. Using a cross-sectional survey design, we collected primary data from 100 students at Universiti Brunei Darussalam using structured questionnaires. Respondents were purposefully selected through a convenience sampling technique. The data collected via structured questionnaires were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Three linear regression models were compared. Estimations from our regression model suggest that university business incubators have a positive and significant influence on students’ innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness. However, the intensity at which these three dimensions of IEO were influenced by university business incubators differs, with proactiveness being the best ranked, followed by innovativeness, and risk-taking being the lowest-ranked. The confirmation that university business incubators influence the level of IEO of students suggests that the objectives of the National Entrepreneurship Agenda in Brunei are being achieved. Consequently, the university business incubator is important for creating and supporting high-growth entrepreneurs, including driving job creation and economic growth. This paper contributes to EO theory by validating and predicting the cause-effect relationship between university business incubators (an aspect of entrepreneurial education) and the IEO of students in universities.
Gamification in the development of entrepreneurial intentions: a QCA analysis
Noemí Pérez-Macías, Cayetano Medina-Molina & Laura Gismera-Tierno
Studies related to gamification and EI are scarce and conducted in isolation, but despite being few, thanks to them we know that gamification is important for the generation of entrepreneurial intentions (EI). Classical models such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) have been used to understand the interactions between the variables that predict EI, although we have not seen, at least to our knowledge, studies that employ this basic theory with gamification and use the QCA methodology that allows us to know how different combinations of TPB conditions together with gamification can lead to the presence or absence of EI. This study is interesting because entrepreneurial behavior is complex, which means that it is not only the TPB variables that are able to explain such behavior but there may be other variables that help us to understand it. And not only that, but traditional methods, to which we are accustomed, are not able to capture this complexity. This means that the use of other methodologies that are capable of capturing the causal asymmetry, equifinality and configurational complexity that occur when explaining EI, can provide great value to both educational institutions and researchers and practitioners. Thus, the aim of this study is twofold: to analyse whether the use of gamification is linked to the variables included in the TPB, to determine the development of EI; to examine which combinations of variables may lead to the occurrence and non-occurrence of EI. For this purpose, the Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) is used in a sample of 333 Spanish university students. The results show how different configurations of explanatory conditions allow us to understand the presence of EI (two combinations) as well as the non-presence (three combinations). Also, how gamification interrelates with the TPB variables to explain the occurrence or non-occurrence of EI. These results provide insight into how interactions between different factors can lead to the generation of EI which can help stakeholders to drive entrepreneurship and to promote to a greater extent these gamified training courses in the classroom in order to improve the attitude of individuals towards entrepreneurship and the perception of their capabilities, among others.
Electronic ISSN:2520-8152, Print ISSN:2520-8144